Mighty Mo and Friends
CJ-2A FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS [FAQ] FILE
CJ-2A FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS [FAQ] FILE
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Thanks to David H. Hatch, firstname.lastname@example.org who created and maintained this page for many years, for bestowing the privilege of maintaining this page.
A very big thanks to Off-Road.com for allowing us permission to borrow questions and answers that have appeared on the "Classic Jeep Mailing List" [CJML] and include them here.
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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ARE ARRANGED IN THESE CATEGORIES
It includes both stock restoration and conversion / modern upgrade information.
AXLES - OVERVIEWS
QUESTION: What axles were used on my 2A?
ANSWER: According to Off-Road.com's Jeep facts, the front axle was a Dana/Spicer 25 with drum brakes. Early CJ-2As used the full-floating Dana/Spicer 23-2 while later models used the semi-floating Dana/Spicer 41. Off-Road.com has fine descriptions here...
Jeep Axle: Dana 25
Jeep Axle: Spicer 23-2
Jeep Axle: Dana 41
AXLES - BROKEN KNUCKLES
QUESTION: Has anybody had the problem of breaking the knuckle to hub bolts on a Dana 25 - if so (or not) what size tire are you running? Also if you are heavily abusing a 25 with the stock bolts I'd be interested to know.
ANSWER: Studs will just keep you from having to hold the bolt head when tightening - desirable if you remove the spindle w/o disassembling the knuckle. I'm not sure of the grade of the studs, but arbitrarily changing to grade 8 is not necessarily a good thing. Grade 8 allows for a higher torque/preload but are less tolerant of shock load. As I recall, there are locknuts on the studs which suggests to me that the designers figured that under certain conditions the tension in the stud went to zero. If that load case is true, grade 8 bolts may fail quicker than the lower grade bolts/studs.
I think the above is true, regardless of what application you are changing. Personally, if I do not know the likely load cases or previous grade, I use grade 5.
I replaced mine with studs from Leon Rosser. The reason for the studs is that the original bolts tend to rip out of the knuckle when oversize tires or power steering is installed. I've heard it can also happen w/ stock equipment. If they do rip out you can still do the fix by drilling out the knuckle holes and then putting in the studs. I already had mine apart so I went ahead and drilled 'em and put in the studs. (Figured I'd try to avoid taking them apart later). The studs I got from Rosser came in MOPAR parts bags. If you're interested you could at least save shipping by getting them through a local dealer. The bags had both an old and new part number on them. The old PN = "930301 bolt" and the new PN = "J8124847" The install was pretty easy but I had access to drill press and arbor press which made short work of it. The only other thing that needed to be done is to grind off some of the stud heads in the 3 and 9 o'clock positions to get full turning radius back. I think I have a some pictures at home of the finished knuckle I could scan if you want.
I also used bolts instead of studs on my king pins. On the knuckle lube I also went to various lists for help. I got every thing from straight gear oil to regular bearing grease and concoctions of them both. I ended up just pumping the knuckle full of high quality, high temp bearing grease. I figure it should work best and not leak as easily.
The brake conversion article I have suggests changing pressing in new knuckle studs to a stronger variety, after I removed the knuckles last night I realized that mine had no studs but are threaded and used bolts instead!
Is there an advantage to studs over some grade 8 bolts? The thing I don't like about studs in these applications is that the threads get gunked and rusted and wind up breaking like half of my king pin studs. One other difference I noticed, my manual shows the kingpins being held in with bolts, I have studs (and plan to use bolts when it goes back together.
We have the stock L134 w/ 30x9.5-15's on our jeep and did snap a hub, and axle joint, one time. We found the cause to be that the bolts came loose. We tighten and lock-tight the bolts and haven't had a problem since. I also have a L-134 bored .080 milled head and ported intake and exhaust. A big boost in power, maybe 90HP, now, with 31x11.5 Super Swamper SX's, Lockers front and rear with power steering.
AXLES - DANA 25 KNUCKLE STUD REPLACEMENT
QUESTION 1: What size hole should I drill?
ANSWER: 3/8" drill
QUESTION 2: Do I really have to use an Arbor Press or will these go in the way you can install wheel studs, by pulling them in with a nut?
ANSWER: Don't be afraid of this mod. It's really pretty simple and I'm pretty sure I could have done it w/ a 3/8 drill, a good 1/2 x6" bolt and a hammer (but the drill press and arbor press made it a piece of cake).
QUESTION 3: How much grinding on the 3:00 & 9:00 studs?
ANSWER: You're basically just removing the threads. The cast iron of the knuckle is not very hard so the studs should drive in pretty easy. Make sure to remove any excess casting material on the inside of the knuckle so the studs will be able to sit flush on the surface. I think the hole towards the front of the knuckle needs the most work for clearance and most of them needed no work at all. Try to get it right the first time so you don't have to remove them over & over. Once the studs are in, trial fit the knuckles on the axle to see how much grinding you'll need to get back steering radius. Use a die grinder to work on the 3 & 9 o'clock studs. Again I think it's the ones to the front of the knuckle that get the most work and it isn't too much but you may feel it is when you do it. (Sorry I had a late class last night and forgot to dig out my pics of this, I'll get 'em tonight though) Don't worry if you lose a little steering radius cause you have to give some up for the larger tires anyway.
Rather than use a nut to pull them in, I'd use a hammer and punch (or 1/2 x 6" bolt) and drive them in. Just keep them as straight as possible. Which brings us to the last tip. Have a rubber mallet handy when you go to put the spindles back on, the studs may needs light adjustments from the outside to get them back in line w/ the spindle holes. (Mine only need slight whacking w/ the rubber mallet) DON'T hit the studs w/ a regular hammer, it's just not worth it. Isn't it Merl who says "Never pound on the threaded end of anything"?
AXLES - DANA 25 KNUCKLE LUBE GRADE
QUESTION: What lube should I use on my Dana 25 axle?
ANSWER: Manual suggests 90wt gear oil, I believe the consensus of the list on this awhile back was to use Mobil One lube grease. You won't have to worry about spots on your garage floor and water will no longer be an issue. You can spackle most of it in when you have the knuckle apart, the fill the rest of the way when assembled. Make sure you remove any burrs on the knuckle cup...they will tear the new felt gasket and cause fluid/grease leakage.
I use high temperature wheel bearing grease in my Dana 25 front knuckles. The property you are looking for in the lubricant is a stringy texture that sticks to metal even under high temperatures. I don't know of many people still using 80-90w gear oil in their front knuckles due mainly to leaks.
I still run 140W gear oil in mine. It lasts a year or so before enough of it leaks out to matter, but I have fairly new seals.
I think a lot of it depends on whether you have freewheeling hubs. With freewheeling hubs you can put in whatever's convenient since the knuckles don't turn that much.
I don't have freewheeling hubs, so I use gear oil because I have heard that you can get cavitations with grease. They say it all spins to the outside from centrifugal force and the CV fails from lack of lubrication.
There is clearly a good deal of disagreement on this among Jeep owners and mechanics. For a while I subscribed to the mil-veh list where the consensus seemed to favor 140W gear oil. But there certainly are many who use grease.
I was thinking that chassis grease or wheel bearing grease just wouldn't splash around in there as the designers wished. Thick stuff just would get slung to the outside and kingpin bearings, etc. would suffer. Something oily is necessary like SAE 90 or 140. Possibly track roller grease like is used in Caterpillar rollers might be thin enough. My GPW just has chassis grease in it and I am afraid of what I might find when I pull it apart. These things were designed in the days when nobody cared if they dripped a little. When they quit dripping it was time to fill them up again. I generally stick with the original manufactures recommendations, or something close if it is available.
When I rebuilt the front end of my wagon I used a 600W oil. It was used in Model A rear ends. It does flow and will drip but it won't get thrown out of the way. No problems in the winter either. Seemed to be the best of both worlds.
I use Molybond and have done so for many years. It's terrible stuff to handle because it sticks to anything and has such a high graphite content, but it won't leak out, won't get affected with water, won't "spin off" and stays consistent during heat.
I use Molybond in my steering boxes, steering knuckles, tie rods, bell cranks, drag links, and on all springs grease points. It's also great on things like the pivot points for the clutch mechanisms and brake pedal grease points. It *cannot* be used anywhere near brake linings.
When you wish to use it in your steering knuckles or steering boxes, I recommend that you just pump it in until it's full. Then during normal driving (and when you put the Jeep away) just hop under the axle or the hood and wipe away the excess with a rag soaked in kero. Eventually, it will stop pushing out the extra grease and you won't have to do it anymore.
QUESTION 2: STA-LUBE Brand Moly-Graph grease - designed for high temp applications and seems to have the same properties as "Bens magic lube." Ever hear of this stuff?
ANSWER 2: This is a very good grease, and the one I always use for general purpose greasing. I don't know if it is the equivalent of Ben's magic grease, but it is a darned good product. I use it or the lubriplate grease in the little tube you can buy at any parts store for about everything. I like the lubriplate better for places where a thinner high temperature grease is needed, such as the cam in a distributor, and I have a mixture of graphite and some lubriplate grease that I use for speedometer cables, but the Sta-Lube Molly grease is great for all utility anointings. Note: It can be really tough to wash out of clothes.
ANSWER: LONG ----- Because the CJ2A has the bottom of the shoes anchored the long shoes go forward. Newer vehicles have "BENDIX" type brakes have a "Star Adjuster" and the bottom of the shoes can move. The BENDIX type brakes have the long shoe to the rear.
BRAKES - ADDING POWER BRAKES
QUESTION: Can I add power brakes to my old Jeep?
ANSWER: If what you are after is disc brakes you can have that with your stock running gear. I have a 47 CJ 2-a with disc brakes front and rear with the stock dana 25 and dana 44. How I did this was I got backing plates, spindles, calipers, and rotors off of a Chevy half ton pickup. It all bolts on and you can use ford half ton rotors or Jeep rotors and spindles to keep the 5 lug pattern. That is what it takes to put them on the front and maybe a little grinding for caliper clearance. On the rear they bolt on also but you have to get axles made because what you are doing is full floating the rearend. So is that you will have hubs on the rear or you can take the hubs off of a full time front end and not have hubs. I almost forgot you need stub axles from an early chevy dana closed knuckle front end the u joints on that stub axle and the one on the inner axle on the 25 are of the same size and you need the stub to match the finer spline on the internal hub. As for power brakes I would go to a wrecking yard and take some measurments and see what you can fit in your engine compartment and if you change to four wheel disc brakes I would find a master cylinder off of a car that has four wheel disc brakes.
BRAKES - CONVERSION TO DISCS
Be careful not mount the caliper backwards so that the bleeder isn't as high as it can be. I mounted my calipers on the wrong side at first and fought with trying to bleed them and then discovered they were on the wrong sides and swapped them around and the brakes bled out right away then.
BRAKES - MICRO-BRAKES
QUESTION: What are micro-brakes?
ANSWER: For those of you whom may not know what a mico brake is it a supplementary hydraulic braking system that pressurizes you regular brakes, it is NOT a replacement for a parking brake but to be used in combination with one.
Lately I have been thinking about adding a mico to my jeep when I redo my brake system. When I thought about this the way the 66 CJ that I have is a single chamber master cylinder like most early jeeps. The problem when I try to sketch the plumbing out on paper is that the lines split directly out of the master cylinder. This would be a problem because you cannot pressurize the whole system at the same time, and then would not be effective as it was designed.
I purchased a Mico Lock from my local auto parts store. I installed it in the front brake lines when I installed disc brakes so that I could lock the brakes when outside running the winch. The one I had, was electrically actuated by a switch, press the brake pedal, and the "lock" maintained the pressure. It would continue to maintain pressure, until turned off and the pedal pressed again. Over time, it would bleed down - hence it is not a replacement for parking brakes.
The second one I purchased was a Hurst Roll-Control, also from a local store, but I think Summitt Racing carries them. I installed it when converting the rear brakes to disc. It came w/ a cute little switch that mounted to the shift lever. It was intended to make pulling away from a stop sign on a hill easier (you do not roll backwards into the grill of some knot-head that pulled up inches from your bumper). As I recall, you hold the switch in when stopped with the brakes on, take your foot off the brakes and modulate the clutch and foot feed, click the switch again, and away you go. I never used it enough to get the sequence right. I have gotten them from a company called AW Direct out of Berlin CT phone 800 243 3194. The mico brakes run from 184.95 for the basic lever lock single cylinder, the dual lock runs 412.95 for electronically controlled ones you jump up to the $900 range and then they can run up to 1080.95 for a three channel ABS system.
BODY - GRILLE, EXTRA LAMPS
QUESTION: My '46 2a grill has the bullet lights plus another set of cone shaped lights below them can anyone help identify this grill? I've looked at tons of pics and have never seen another like it.
ANSWER: They may be "add-on" turn signals put in by a previous owner. That has been seen before.
BODY - DATA PLATE ATTACHMENT METHOD
QUESTION: Does anybody know how the data plate on the dash and the serial number tags under the hood were originally attached? Mine were all secured with sheet metal screws when I got it. I was wondering if they originally had rivets, especially the serial number tags.
ANSWER: Sheet metal screws
BODY - WATER THROUGH ENGINE AREA THROUGH BONNET HINGE
QUESTION 1: My 2A sits outside. I noticed water in the concave area of the spark plug nearest the firewall. Obviously rain is coming through the bonnet-to-firewall hinged/gap. Any solutions?
ANSWER 2: Somewhere I've read/seen something about a piece that was available, it bolted on in between the hinge and body. If you're not worried about originality a piece of aluminum siding J-channel might work, or bend up your own out of sheet metal.
I have an original gutter on my 3A and it doesn't work well either. Its wierd the way its designed, running perhaps 18" along under the hinge, but slotted in from the ends maybe 8" on either end. Before I did my resto, I sealed the slots.
QUESTION 2: Just below the hinge for the hood, there is a flange sticking forward, part of the firewall, running from side to side. About 1 foot in the middle had been bent up slightly. I thought it might have been damage from the engine being pulled out for rebuild many years ago. Now that I look a little closer, it looks like it was carefully bent up, just a little, to form a gutter and keep rainwater off the engine. I wonder if this was a common modification.
ANSWER 2: Not a modification but standard or optional equipment for the universal jeep. It was a rain gutter to channel the water away from the engine. Both my 1949 CJ3A and `1957 CJ3B have this piece. It bolts on using the hood attachment bolts and is a seperate piece.
Here are some pics...
Both photos show the rain gutter bolted to the cab with the hood hinge bolts on a 3B...
(the following links are now dead - if you know where it is email Ric@MightyMo.org)
BODY - BONNET WOOD BLOCKS
QUESTION: Does anybody know what type of wood was originally used for the hood blocks on a CJ2A?
ANSWER: The blocks were unfinished, although many restorers use a clear wood finish, such as polyurethane, to give some protection.
They were secured with counterbored (not countersunk) machine screws, #10 I believe. (A counterbore has a flat bottom while a countersink is angled. I think they probably used a regular drill, which would have left a shallow angle, but have never seen an original block that is in good enough shape to be able to tell).
The round-head, slotted-drive screw, and washer, go down through the block, then the hood, and there are washers and nuts below. Mine had square nuts but it is not clear that these were original.
I don't know if this will help you, Vern But here's a rundown on the 3A blocks. Softwood, unidentifiable wood, quarter-sawed, 4" x 1" x 1.5"(h) , machine screw to hood w nut beneath, countersunk .75". (I made mine out of white oak, gave them a coat of urethane or two, and they look great. I still have the originals, but they are really weather beaten) The new ones were cut from a weathered piece I had laying around, so I just put the weathered side up.
Pine with a tung oil finish. Running down(length wise) the top of the wooden supports is a slot(made by using a router) .25" deep, .5" wide. In this slot/grove is a waxed, cotton cord. The purpose of this "cord" is to act as a bumper for the windshield. Surplus City sells a dandy replica of the whole shooting match. Blocks, cord and screws. I don't remember what the cost was but it was very inexpensive. Hope this helps.
BODY - FASTENERS FOR SMALL BODY PARTS
QUESTION: What type of fasteners where used for small body parts?
ANSWER: Mine had square nuts but it is not clear that these were original. Only for the sake of true restoration, almost all, if not all, of the smaller, body fasteners (machine screws #12-8) used square nuts on my almost unaltered 3A, including harness straps, footman loops, hood bumpers, etc.
BODY - COLORS FROM THE FACTORY, PIN STRIPES ON RIMS
BODY - PARTS COLORS
QUESTION: Are your shure the air-cleaner devices were painted same color as engine? According to what I have read in a book these parts were painted black, (not glossy).
ANSWER: The chassis, engine, air cleaner were all glossy black. They were not the flat black (or satin black) that other manufacturer's used.
At least on the CJ-2A, there were a couple different kinds of black:
1) W.O Part Number # 641237 Black Chassis Enamel (W.O. Specification -202) - This is the black used on the engine and the chassis components. It also was used for the wheels when they were painted black. The thinners used for this paint were:
a) W.O Part Number # 641240 Thinner for Synthetic Paints Gen. Purpose (W.O. Specification J-003)
b) W.O Part Number # 641241 Thinner for Synthetic Paints Slow Drying (W.O. Specification J-004)
2) W.O. Part Number # 641238 Grip-Tite Non-Skid Black Decking (W.O. Specification J-402) - This was used on the clutch and brake pedals.
3) W.O. Part Number # 641239 Acid Proof Black Lacquer (W.O. Specification J-303) - This was used on the battery tray and components.
4) W.O. Part Number # 643437 Black Dipping Enamel (W.O. Specification J-207) - This was used to paint a lot of the smaller parts.
5) W.O. Part Number # 663532 Americar Black (Striping Lacquer) - Used for those wheels with a black pin stripe. Thinners used were:
a) W.O Part Number # 641849 Anti-Skinning Agent for Americar Black
6) W.O. Part Number # 666781 Black (Air Dry Enamel) - Used to paint misc. parts that were painted black.
You also have to understand that a lot of the parts of the CJ-2A were purchased elsewhere. As part of the contract between them and the vendor, the parts may have been specified to have been painted "black". If Willys-Overland did not repaint them, odds are the shades and the degree of gloss would have varied. (For example: The air cleaner was purchased from Oakes Products Division (Houdaille-Hershey). There interpretation of what was "black enamel", may have been off a little bit.)
BODY - 2A and MB BODY DIFFERENCES
QUESTION 1: I have always wondered was why they deleted the glove box on the CJ's?
ANSWER 1: Cost. The addition of the glovebox added cost to the vehicle. They did all kinds of things to try and save money. What was rather amusing was Willys seemed to waffle on whether to make a full hub cap standard on the 463. The idea kept cropping up in the Engineering Release Forms, but the idea was always cancelled or never released due to cost. It would show up one time and cancelled. Then it would crop up again a few months later and be cancelled. Another example is the extra seats in the back for the 463. They were standard items for the first couple years. But later on they were transfered to the Optional Equipment Group to save cost.
QUESTION 2: Were some of the dies the same as the MB dies?
ANSWER 2: Some of the tooling may have been used early on, but there are not a whole lot of body panels that are exactly the same on the CJ-2A and the MB (Although on the surface they look the same and are interchangeable.) You also have to understand that the tooling had a useful life. There are lots of entries in the Engineering Release Forms to change shapes and cuts to prolong tool and die life. They were very concerned about saving money. At some point the tooling would wear out and need to be repaced.
Some of the tooling may have been used early on, but there are not a whole lot of body panels that are exactly the same on the CJ-2A and the MB (Although on the surface they look the same and are interchangeable.) You also have to understand that the tooling had a useful life. There are lots of entries in the Engineering Release Forms to change shapes and cuts to prolong tool and die life. They were very concerned about saving money. At some point the tooling would wear out and need to be repaced.
QUESTION 3: Were any 2As "composite"?
ANSWER 3: Composite refers to the common body Ford and Willys agreed to in late 1943. Willys referred to these bodies as the "MB-FW". (Ford-Willys). During this time frame, American Central could manufacture more bodies than Willys could handle, while Ford at the time had more government contracts for other types of war items. It was determined that the best use of Ford's resources would be to devote them to the other contracts and allow American Central to make the bodies for Ford. The characteristics of both the Willys and Ford tubs were combined to make one "composite" body. (Although some individual characteristics still were retained.)
QUESTION 4: I realize that I am mis-using the term "composite" here. (and I am not entirely clear just what it means in relation to the GPWs) What I mean is: were any of the body "tubs" out- sourced?
ANSWER 4: All CJ-2A bodies were built by American Central. Willys-Overland was primarily an assembler of parts and not a large manufacturer of parts.
QUESTION 5: And who were these outside vendors? And did they play any part in post-war jeep production?
ANSWER 5: Depends on whether you mean body vendors or vendor in particular. So far I have identified 323 vendors who supplied parts to Willys-Overland for the Jeep. There were a variety of companies producing body parts. Depending on what model, it could be American Central (CJ-2A and early 463) or Briggs Manufacturing (later 463, 4T, 2T), Hayes (463, 663 tailgates and wheelhouses) and some other manufacturer I can't think of of the top of my head that made the 463 hoods. At some point, Willys decided to bring back production of the bodies in house and American Central bodies were phased out.
QUESTION 6: Had they also considered the heater at this time? Adding a heater behind the glove box would have been a bit awkward.
ANSWER 6: Heater on the 2A is on the driver's side.
Todd Paisley - CJML
QUESTION: Does anyone know what type of wood was used in the body supports [of the 2A's]?
ANSWER: From what I've read, it is white oak.
BODY- WINDSCREEN WEATHER-STRIP
CLUTCH - PEDAL FREE PLAY
QUESTION: I was adjusting the clutch pedal free play last night on my 48 CJ2A last night and had a question. How much end play is normal on the cross shaft between the frame and transfer case?
ANSWER: It's been a while since I redid all that, so remembering. Radial play is the most common, as ball pivot on xfercase wears on one side. End play of .125" is nothing. [Another adds] If I remember right my jeep had about a half of an inch of play when I still had the stock pedals.
CLUTCH - PEDAL ARRANGEMENT
ELECTRICAL - SPARK BUT NOT FIRING
QUESTION: Why would I have spark in a cylinder but it is not firing? I *can* tell from the tune-up machine scope that the plug is actually firing (gets the voltage spiking that you'd expect). Compressed air shows the valves are working properly, and both wet and dry compression checks come out ok (about like the others). The thing seems to run pretty much as it should at idle, and then if you short out 1, 2, or 4 you get a miss and drop in RPM. With #3 shorted, it runs the same as not shorted - I even tried different distributor caps, plugs, plug leads - same results. Its almost like its actually firing on 3 with or without the plug shorted :) (of course, this is at idle - driving it with the plug wire off, you can definitly notice a power loss) The system is still 6 volt. Why is it not firing?
ANSWER: Your symptoms a highly suggestive of a ***weak*** spark as compared to an absence of spark. I say this because you have a 6 volt system, which means you have a generator. Almost all generators have larger pulleys than do alternators, and therefore spin at a lower speed than an alternator does for a given engine RPM. As I think back about the generator equipped cars and trucks I have owned (four of them), it seems to me that the ammeter would register a slight discharge when the motor was idling. This means that it is putting out at a lower voltage than the battery, probably around 5.5 volts.
With a 6 volt system, you are undoubtedly running the breaker point/capacitor/coil system for creating the high voltage necessary to fire the plugs. This system uses energy stored in the form of a magnetic field:
The cycle begins when the ignition points *close*, completing an electrical circuit from the power source (the battery), through the ignition switch, to the coil, to the distributor points, which connect to the grounded motor block, hence back to the battery.
This completed electrical path, or circuit allows current to flow through the "primary" winding of the ignition coil. This in turn creates a magnetic field, with is concentrated by the iron core of the coil. This represents stored energy that can be used to create a high voltage output. The current flows for as long as the points are closed, which is referred to as the "dwell time," or simply the "dwell." It is important that you have the proper dwell. Too short a dwell time, and the core will not have sufficient time to fully charge with magnetic energy, or "flux." Too long a dwell causes unnecessary heat build up in the coil, which can shorten its life expectancy. The proper dwell is designed into the cam lobes in the distributor, but this can change if the lobes become worn down. In an ideal situation, the lobes will allow the points to remain closed long enough for sufficient flux to build up in the core of the coil at the highest design RPM of the motor, but not so long as to excessively overheat the coil during periods of prolonged idle. This wear on the lobes is one reason why you should replace or rebuild a point equipped distributor periodically. I like to do it about every 60 to 75 thousand miles. Good cam grease can prolong the life of a cam substantially.
You can test to see if your cam is worn by using a dwell meter in conjunction with a timing light and a set of feeler gages:
Install a new set of points, setting them as accurately as possible to the manufacturer's specified gap. This may take you several tries. Now, start the motor and set the timing to the factory specification. Use a known good (read accurate) dwell meter and check the dwell reading. If it falls within the manufacturer's specification, your distributor cam is OK. If it does not, you need to replace or rebuild your distributor.
Next, use the timing light and observe the timing mark for several seconds. If it is perfectly steady, your distributor is in good shape mechanically. If it moves around, or dances, something is worn in the system. Possible causes of dancing timing include excessive wear in the bearing between the drive shaft of the distributor and the part that supports the rotor (I find this to be the most common problem); a loose breaker point mounting plate (another very common problem - check the pivot where the plate moves under the control of the vacuum advance unit - Note that the early jeeps do not have a vacuum advance); weak, damaged, or missing springs or weights in the centrifugal advance unit; warped or improperly mounted points; or occasionally a worn distributor drive dear or timing gear/timing chain.
It is important to know how the coil and points work to create the high voltage needed to fire the plugs. This happens when the points ****OPEN****. When the points open, the electrical circuit that was supplying current to the primary of the spark coil is interrupted. Without the energy supplied by the current flowing through the primary, the magnetic field in the core of the coil begins to collapse. I will not go into the physics involved, but suffice it to say that the collapsing magnetic filed induces a voltage in the windings of the coil that is trying to sustain the collapsing magnetic field. This induced voltage will be opposite in polarity to the voltage that sustained the current that created the magnetic field in the first place.
This induced voltage is called "magnetic kick." The amplitude of the "kick" is dependant on the *rate* at which the field collapses. The faster the collapse, the higher the "kick" voltage. The speed of the collapse (and therefore the magnitude of the "kick") is highest if there is a very high resistance between the terminals of the windings, and correspondingly is lower as this resistance increases.
There are two windings in a spark coil. The primary winding is composed of relatively few turns of relatively heavy wire, and the secondary winding is composed of a relatively great many turns of relatively fine wire. "Relatively" is used to compare the two windings with each other, not necessarily with any other frame of reference. The exact gage and number of turns is determined by the design parameters of the coil. The Primary winding has its ends connected to the two terminals on top of the coil marked "ign" or "+" and "gnd" or "-". The secondary winding has one end connected to the case of the coil and the other end terminates at the high voltage output where the wire that goes to the distributor cap is attached.
An inductive "kick" is created in both the primary and the secondary windings. Because there are a lot more turns in the secondary, the magnitude of the "kick" is much higher in the secondary. It is this voltage that is used to fire the plugs.
However, provision must be made to deal with the primary "kick." If the primary "kick" is allowed to dump itself across the points as they open, the resulting arc will very rapidly destroy the points! The capacitor is used to store the energy from the inductive "kick" in the primary winding.
When the points close, the capacitor stores an electrical charge at the voltage of the system (about 6 volts). When the points open, the voltage in the primary begins to rise in response to the collapsing magnetic field. This rising voltage is stored inside the capacitor where it is held until the points close again, shorting out the capacitor. Because the energy is bled out from the capacitor over a relatively long period of time when compared to the time it took the magnetic field to collapse, the voltage is lower, and the points are protected.
It is important that the capacitor have the right value to work properly. Too much capacitance, and it will slow down the collapse of the magnetic field, causing a weak spark. Note that both the primary and secondary windings draw the energy for their respective inductive "kicks" from the same source - the collapsing field in the core of the coil. Too little, and it will not be able to store enough of the energy induced in the primary when the field collapses, resulting in poor point life. The exact value of capacitance needed depends on several factors, including the specific parameters in the particular coil installed (inductance, resistance of the windings, etc). I do not change out a capacitor when doing a tune-up if the points are wearing uniformly, as it is properly balanced to that system. On the other hand, I have been known to buy a half a dozen capacitors and try to find the best one by substitution. Yes, it costs some money, but it gets the best performance from the system.
It is possible that the capacitor, points, etc. are working to specification, but you will still have a weak spark. A high resistance short anywhere within the coil itself that could be syphoning off power from that should be going to make a good, hot spark. Also, a short to ground anywhere in the high voltage side can rob a lot of power. Other possible sources of "power theft" include: A cracked or delaminated core in the coil; bad high voltage (plug) wires, including the insulating boots; cracked or moist cap; cracked rotor; or a cracked porcelain on one or more plugs. There is a simple "farmer's method" test to see if you are getting a good, "hot" spark. It was taught to me by my father:
With the engine off, remove a plug wire and insert a short (about 2-1/2" to 3" long) 1/4" bolt into the boot. Push it in far enough so that it is fully inside the connection in the boot. Rest the bolt on the block someplace to short it to ground. Start the motor and carefully move the bolt away from the block, very slowly. WARNING - SHOCK HAZARD! Observe the spark that jumps between the head of the bolt and the block. THE FOLLOWING COMMENTS APPLY ONLY TO A BREAKER POINT IGNITION SYSTEM. A modern computer controlled ignition has a much different characteristic appearance to the spark. All of the tests are done with a warm motor (the battery has had a chance to recharge after starting the motor) with the motor at idle speed....
First, observe the *length* of the spark. Move the bolt away from the block until a spark no longer jumps across. Now move it back towards the block until the spark starts up again. You are looking for the longest spark you can make *that will fire every time.* Eyeball estimate the length as best you can. The 1/4" bolt makes a good reference for you to use.
"Minimum" spark - You should be able to produce a spark ***at least*** 1/4" long. It takes a lot more voltage to cause a spark under the pressures inside the cylinder on the compression stroke than it does in free air, as you are testing. A 1/4" arc represents the minimum voltage needed for good ignition, particularly if the motor is old and pumping oil.
"Average" spark - Most breaker point systems in good shape will throw a spark about 3/8 of an inch. This should be enough to do the job.
"Strong" spark - well optimized breaker point system can throw a spark a half inch or more. I used the "swap the condenser" method to get the best possible spark from a '53 Dodge WM300 "Power Wagon" I use to own. It would throw a spark almost 5/8 of an inch once the generator had sufficient time to recharge the battery.
Now, observe the **color** of the spark. I think it is due to the duration of the spark, or how long it takes the field to collapse to the point where it can no longer sustain the arc.
A "Cold" spark - This type of spark is thin and light blue in color. This is the kind of spark you will see with modern computer controlled motors, which throw a very long, light blue spark. They use a spark of relatively short duration because this type of spark can be controlled more precisely.
A "Hot" spark - A "hot" spark appears orangeish or yellowish, and is wider than a "cold" spark. Dad said that it represented plenty of current flowing in the arc. All I know is that any time I saw a Hot spark at least 3/8 of an inch long, the motor would generally start easy and run well with good gas milage.
There are several reasons why a "weak," "cold" spark would produce the symptoms you observe. Because there is little difference between the engine performance at idle with #3 wire on or off, it is obvious that, while the spark plug may be firing in air, it is not firing hot enough (or what is more probable regularly enough) to ignite the mixture in that cylinder. Variations in compression pressure may allow the other three cylinders to fire with a spark that is too weak to work #3 which would almost certainly have the highest compression pressure of the lot. There may be an air leak in the manifold (check the gasket, and the manifold itself for any cracks, no matter how small) which is resulting in a leaner mixture feeding to #3. It takes a better spark to ignite a lean mixture than it does a rich one. A very small crack in either valve in #3 cylinder could be too small to really show up under the average compression test, but could dilute the mixture enough to make it hard to light with a weak spark. The same holds for the valve seats. #3 could be burning a tad more oil than the rest. Oil droplets in the mixture can make a cylinder much harder to light. A very small crack in the head or the block could be allowing a bit of water to get into the mixture, making it harder to light. Some of the symptoms will be more noticeable when the motor is cold than when it is warmed up. For example, a lean mixture will be easier to light after the motor is warmed. You should do all of your testing with a fully warmed up motor.
Once the motor speeds up, the generator is turning fast enough to produce appreciable output. The additional voltage supplied by the generator will create a spark that is "strong" and "hot" enough to properly ignite the mixture, which is why there is a loss of power when you pull the wire and drive at a higher speed. This is a bigger problem with 6 volt systems, as it takes a good, low resistance circuit to push enough current through the coil to give a good spark. Make sure that all of your connections are tight, all of the wires are good, etc. You may learn something if you use a piece of at least #14 gage wire and connect directly between the "ign" or "+" side of the coil and the positive terminal of your battery. If this clears up your problem, you will need to investigate the entire ignition circuit (wires, ignition switch, etc.) and find and cure the bad spots. Note that higher engine speeds tend to create a more uniform mixture in the cylinders, overcoming problems due to air leaks, etc.
ELECTRICAL - TELLTALE LAMP
QUESTION: My CJ-2A has a very small, knurled knob-looking thing just to the left of the throttle handle. I reached under the dash and it appears to be a switch of some kind by virture of the fact that there are wires going to it. Does anyone know what this is for?
ANSWER: Scrape away the layers of paint and you should find a small round lens in the center. This is the tell-tale light for the headlight high beams. You can unscrew the knurled outer housing to replace the small bulb inside.
ELECTRICAL - START-CIRCUIT IN WIRING
(the following link is now dead - if you know where it is email
+ |------(Ammeter)----(Ignition)-----(Ballast )-----(Spark) -------|- ( Switch ) (Resistor) (Coil ) | | |Battery| | | ---------
+ |-\----(Ammeter)----(Ignition)-----(Ballast )-----(Spark) -------|- \ A ( Switch ) (Resistor) /(Coil ) | | \ |-----------| / |Battery| \ | B|-----------------------------/ | | \ | | --------- \--(Solenoid)---(Starter) (Motor )
QUESTION: Is there any information on the 2A wiring harness from the factory?
ANSWER: Here are the serial number breakdowns for the CJ-2A wiring harnesses I am looking to find examples of. (Since he also wants to make up CJ-3A, CJ3-B and CJ-5 wiring harness, I'm sure he would like examples of those too. I don't know when the changes of these models occured though. The more examples the better to get a greater sampling. Here is your chance to help make sure accurate harnesses are available!)
Single wire assemblies:
Fuel Gauge to Fuel Tank Cable (All CJ-2As)
Body Wiring Harness - Long (This is generally the wiring harness that comes from the light switch and other under-dash switches)
Serial Number 10001 to 47099
Body Wiring Harness - right side (This is the wiring harness for the ignition coil, distributor, starter switch, ammeter to voltage regulator)
Serial Number 10001 to 46478
Chassis Wiring Harness (This is the wiring harness for the stop lights and tail lights)
Serial Number 10001 to 51228
Generator to Voltage Regulator Harness (All CJ-2As)
Headlight - Left - Harness (All CJ-2As)
Parking Light - Left - Harness
Serial Number 10001 to 97740
Battery to Starting Switch Cable (All CJ-2As)
Todd Paisley - CJML -------------------------------------
ELECTRICAL - WIRING HARNESS REMOVAL
> Concerning the questions about removing and replacing a harness on a CJ2A: I recently went through the same process. I had already removed the seats and fuel tank. Once I removed the clutch and brake pedals, access was not too bad. Removal of the speedometer, like previously mentioned, gave a lot more room to work. All of the harness forward of the firewall came back through the 7/8" hole with no problem. Don't bother removing the wires from the light switch, high beam tell-tale light or ign switch/coil. Just undo them from the dash and remove them with all the wires attached.
I definately agree with the comment about not cutting if not absolutely needed. I was able to get the old, very decrepit harness out in one big piece. The only wires that needed to be actually unhooked under the dash were at the fuel gauge and ammeter. And possibly the dash illumination light, but mine was already broken.
I was able to then lay the old harness on a sheet of plywood, secure it between some nails, and build a nice duplicate over the original in the comfort of my shop. When some time later I installed it, with all the wire lengths exactly as before, I honestly spent less than an hour under the dash. The switches and coil, etc. were already connected, and just had to be secured to the dash. There was very little fumbling with individual connections required.
On a practical note, for working in the cold: I have a couple of clamp-on work lights, the kind with big reflectors like a large bowl. They use regular screw-in incadescent bulbs. I put floodlight-shaped heat lamps in them. Obviously use care for any combustibles around them, but they do a wonderful job of taking the chill away when working outside.
ELECTRICAL - 6V STARTER ON A 12V SYSTEM
QUESTION: Where can I get the ratchet mechanism for my emergency brake?
ANSWER: It is available thru Beachwood Canvas. There are two holes for a #10 size bolt equally spaced from the brake lever hole on the dash for attachment.
On my '46 2A, the support arm itself was welded to the backside of the dash. On mine it was snapped off and I had to make a whole new contraption.
According to one parts dealer, the support arm for the ratchet cannot be removed and re-installed. I understand the *ratchet itself* can be puchased through Beachwood Canvass. Unless, you are missing a smaller piece [the actual ratchet].
Mine was snapped off [fatigued back and forth maybe] to make room for an in-dash radio. I had to create one.
I used wood for the missing support bracket, as I do not have access to cutting and welding gear. I used a 2" wide, 1/2" thick wood strip. Cut a "U" shape in one end that would fit snug into the concave ebrake area on the backside of the dash. This wood strip then was fitted with a steel tube/pipe a shade bigger than the ebrake handle, making a sleeve for the handle. I then cut a notch in the sleeve, then put a pull-pin... [similar to the pin on a fire extingisher]. This acts like the ratchet as the handle has action against it when pulled. I then mounted the firewall end of the wood strip to the firewall. It is out of sight and works like a charm.
Emergency brake repair:
How my ebrake setup looked when I got it: [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\EBRKBAD.jpg] No bracket, no ratchet, no handle. [Backside pic].
See my new handle, hanging through the hole, [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\EBRKBAD2.jpg]. No bracket, no ratchet.
Created dash-to-firewall ratcheting bracket for ebrake system. [Homemade] [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\BAYDASH.JPG] See it through radio hole.
See the new homemade ebrake bracket [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\BAYDASH.JPG] attached to firewall.
See new [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\EBRKNEW2.JPG] homemade ebrake ratcheting bracket at ebrake hole. Ratchet is a mounted spring pin over a slotted pipe.
See what an [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\EBRKNEW2.JPG] original ratcheting ebrake looks like.
See how an [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\EBRKORG1.JPG] original bracket fits to firewall.
EMERGENCY BRAKE - BUYING A CABLE
QUESION: Does any one know where to find a replacement emergency brake cable? This is for a '62 CJ5? I could probably fabricate one, but because it was completely missing when I bought my CJ, I really don't know where to start. I have the dash/firewall bracket and ratcheting handle, but no cable.
ANSWER: I got mine, new and nice, here for $35 dollars...
ENGINE - F HEAD IN PLACE OF AN L HEAD
QUESTION: I've been told that the F head block can be used in place of the L head with some mods. Is this true?
ANSWER 1: The F-head is a different animal than the L-head. By most accounts the F-head won't fit in a low-hood flat fender without cutting a hole in the hood or putting on a body lift.
ANSWER 2: Using a carburetor from an early Ford Falcon (144cid engine) will provide clearance for the hood to close without cutting a hole in it. A low profile air cleaner is required though.
ENGINE - HORSEHAIR AROUND RADIATOR
ANSWER: Matching material is not available from any source. I searched exhaustively during my restoration and came up with nothing. Beachwood Canvas sells some material that works and is the right color but isn't even close to the original appearance.
ENGINE - GETTING THE HEAD OFF
QUESTION: How do I get the head off my L-134?
ANSWER: Not sure on an L-head, but on an F-head there is a bolt under where the carb mounts which is the last (hidden head bolt) I couldn't figure out why the head on mine wouldn't come off until I noticed it.
I had to replace a couple head gaskets on my flathead when I had it in my jeep. You just have to pry on it with a pry bar or e screwdriver. They come off hard the first time get easier after that especially after the 2nd or 3rd. I finally figured out my prolem, why I was blowing head gaskets. When you go to put the studs back in make sure you put all of the studs in without nuts on them or do it even better way if you have the money and replace all of the studs and nuts. The problem I was having was that some of the nuts were frozen on the studs and the stud would bottom out in its threaded hole and the nut wouldn't go any further because it was frozen thus giving a false torque. What I did because I was in school and short on money is found the problem studs and replaced them with grade 8 bolts of the proper length and never had any problems after that.
ENGINE - PAINT
QUESTION 1: What was the color of the engine and engine parts on the early jps?
ANSWER 1: The chassis, engine, air cleaner were all glossy black. They were not the flat black (or satin black) that other manufacturer's used. [Todd Paisley CJML]
QUESTION 2: Did this continue throught the fiftys with all jeeps (L and F head) or was it model specific i.e. CJ2A? (I've got a '54 3B and was just wondering).
ANSWER 2: I don't have any authoritative information on original undercarriage and engine parts paint on CJ-3B's, but I haven't seen much that would contradict the theory that it was generally glossy black. [Derek Redmond - CJML]
QUESTION: Does anyone know some slight modifications that may have been done at the dealership for more power?
ANSWER: The factory offered a high compression (7.0 vs. 6.4) cylinder head for high altitudes. That option could have been installed either at the factory or by a dealer. I don't know the horsepower boost offhand, nor how much to shave off a standard head to obtain the 7.0 compression ratio.
It's quite easy to calculate how much the head has to be shaved of or the block decked. Though caution has to taken to valve/head clearance. There are a lot of ways to check that to before working with the head. I do not know the clearence distance so.... Some percents of horsepower can be achived by smoothing the manifold intake ways and same thing in the block. Had been a lot more easy if you had modern engine with valves-in the head to work on.
The effect of the bored-out block is negligible, I can assure you. With the first rebuild of my L-head- it was sent out to one of those big engine rebuilders- came back with a tag on it, "Power-Pac". I didn't realize the implications until I tore into it, years later: .062" oversize (.022 over suggested max.). This last go around, I re-sleeved back to standard. And I have to tell you, *I* don't notice any difference.
I agree that the effect of any overbore would be negligible, if it was even noticeable. But what I did say is true. That it is the *easiest and safest* way to increase compression. Period. No representations that it would result in any real World or even theoretical power gains.
One more interesting (to me, anyway) thing is that an excessive overbore like yours probably decreased your power, rather than increased it. The weak link in any overbore scenario is the "no man's land" between cylinders where, in essence, twice the amount of material is being removed (the amount of the overbore on each side of that usually narrow to start with area).
Even though you can get nice, neat round holes and you can get the pistons to seal statically, once the block is up to operating temperature and the pistons are moving at whatever speed 4000 or 5000 rpm translates into, the thin wall between cylinders would deflect to the point where the rings couldn't seal the compression into the combustion chambers because the cylinders were no longer round.
A 283 overbored .060 (292) would always make more power than the same block overbored .125 (301). So we always had a surprise for the folks who engineered by the motto: "if some is good, more is better and too much must be just enough" . Especially considering you had to carry a certain weight for each inch of displacement.
There are also other ways to lose power by increasing your compression depending on how you do it. One way would be to dome the piston to the point where the sparkplug would ignite only the fuel on it's side of the mountainous dome and not propagate across to the other side, leaving that amount of fuel unburned and having contributed nothing to power. Another would be to increase the compression to the point where you had to back the ignition timing off to prevent detonation with the available fuel.
Even the aforementioned smoothing and polishing might cause a loss in power. Some turbulence in the intake charge is necessary to keep the fuel molecules suspended in the air intake. If none is present the heavier (than air) fuel has a tendency to fall out of the air stream and pool or puddle in low areas in the intake runners.
Matching intake manifolds to heads, once thought to be the greatest advance since sliced bread, can be overdone as it has been know for a long time now that appropriate mismatching is desirable, even necessary to create a "reversion dam" to prevent the intake charge from being pushed back out by exhaust gases in engines with long overlap cams.
Jeff Polidoro - CJML
ENGINE - MAKING THE CRANK LIGHTER
QUESTION: By lightening the crank, wouldn' t it also result in a reciprocal loss, if minimal, of low end torque?
ANSWER: No, torque is a function of the length of the moment arm, in this case the stroke of the engine, not the weight of the moment arm. Lighter is always better, whether it's crank, pistons, valves, block, you name it. The only possible exception might be the mass of the flywheel. There are 2 opinions but I favor the lighter ones and the resulting responsiveness.
Jeff Polidoro - CJML
ENGINE - PRE-LUBRICATING
QESTION: My engine has been rebuilt, what can I do to pre-lubricate it prior to
ANSWER I appreciate not every owner will have a
spare oil pump but for those who do have access to one here is a tip.
Temporarily install an oil pump that has had the
teeth machined [or filed] off the driven gear. Removing the teeth will allow the
pump to spin when driven by an electric drill via a shaft inserted in the
distributor hole. The shaft can be gutted from an old distributor or made from
metal bar simulating the oil pump drive tang. It doesn't even have to be a good
condition oil pump as we are not concerned about maintaining flow/pressure once
the engine is warmed up and revving its heart out. Once the teeth are
removed it doesn't matter if it is a 1933 or 1960 oil pump. Just make sure it is
clean inside and out with no debris likely to be dislodged. Use an old gasket or
make a temp one from thick paper and bolt the old pump up. If worried about a
slight oil leak just wrap a rag around the pump, it is a temporary installation
after all. Works a treat for engines that have been sitting a long time since
rebuild or since the last startup.
Paint this priming pump a distinctive colour and
mark it so it can not be mistaken for a proper oil pump when bolted to the
This is the most effective method of priming oil
into the engine through the oil passages it is meant to flow through. It can
also be used to verify flow into the bypass oil filter, oil out of the timing
gear jet [with timing cover removed], flow past each main bearing and rod cap
[with the sump removed and oil fed to pump via hose dipped in oil bottle, flow
to valve gear of F134/161 as well as to verify the oil gauge or idiot light
L134 Ted - WT
ENGINE - PRE-LUBRICATING
QESTION: My engine has been rebuilt, what can I do to pre-lubricate it prior to starting it?
ANSWER I appreciate not every owner will have a spare oil pump but for those who do have access to one here is a tip.
Temporarily install an oil pump that has had the teeth machined [or filed] off the driven gear. Removing the teeth will allow the pump to spin when driven by an electric drill via a shaft inserted in the distributor hole. The shaft can be gutted from an old distributor or made from metal bar simulating the oil pump drive tang. It doesn't even have to be a good condition oil pump as we are not concerned about maintaining flow/pressure once the engine is warmed up and revving its heart out. Once the teeth are removed it doesn't matter if it is a 1933 or 1960 oil pump. Just make sure it is clean inside and out with no debris likely to be dislodged. Use an old gasket or make a temp one from thick paper and bolt the old pump up. If worried about a slight oil leak just wrap a rag around the pump, it is a temporary installation after all. Works a treat for engines that have been sitting a long time since rebuild or since the last startup.
Paint this priming pump a distinctive colour and mark it so it can not be mistaken for a proper oil pump when bolted to the block.
This is the most effective method of priming oil into the engine through the oil passages it is meant to flow through. It can also be used to verify flow into the bypass oil filter, oil out of the timing gear jet [with timing cover removed], flow past each main bearing and rod cap [with the sump removed and oil fed to pump via hose dipped in oil bottle, flow to valve gear of F134/161 as well as to verify the oil gauge or idiot light works.
L134 Ted - WT
ENGINE - SYNTHETIC LUBES
QUESTION: Does anyone have knowledge or opinion on Slick 50 and some of these other oil additives I am thinkin' about putting one or another in my 2A to enhance engine life?
ANSWER 1: [From various areas of opinion]: One of the best products I've used. Highly recommended.
ANSWER 2: My opinion, based upon nothing, is that the best thing you can do is run a quality oil and changed at reasonable intervals. The definition of 'quality oil' and 'reasonable intervals' are left to the reader. Everything that I've seen suggests that it is almost impossible to execute a well designed experiment to determine what these are given the variability and time involved. Dyno juice has been run for years and there's plenty of older rigs with well over 100k on them. My Civic (see the .sig below) has been completely abused all it's life (I run Castrol GTX and change it when I get around to it) and continues to run very well. There are some compelling reasons to run synthetics, however you can change to oil twice as often for the money with petrol oil.
As for the additives, et al. My basic take is that anyone who uses marketing techniques composed of outrageous 'get quick rich' type claims and sensational video footage in the auto part super stores are looking for suckers. If their results are that night-and-day of a difference I'd fully expect Castrol, Mobile, etc to be on board not to mention GM, Ford, BMW, Mercedes, adnosium. Believing that to not be the case I've concluded that it's a smoke screen. It probably won't hurt but I'd be absolutely blown away if you could convince me that you've found it to be of any help.
My motorcycle has one known flaw in that the top end oiling is a bit weak and thus the oil thread has been beaten into the ground on that mail list. We've even a few petroleum chemists. Being a high performance engine I run synthetics and change the oil frequently, the best technique I know. All that being said, there are differences in oil and some of the learned members of that list do use a particular zinc based (I think) additive to help the oil designed for cars function better in the bike (where the engine and tranny use the same oil) instead of paying through the nose $5+ a quart for Honda Motorcycle oil.
In short: spend the money on another filter and change your oil more often.
ANSWER 3: Ford, GM, BMW, Castrol, etc., etc., (my opinion) are not going to jump on the band wagon for a great new product that last hundreds of thousands of miles and makes your engine last forever. They WANT you to buy products and parts FREQUENTLY. That's big money. Other than that I think you hit it on the head. I've used additives and synthetics and could tell no difference, except in the wallet.
ANSWER 4: The good one I heard was about STP. A mechanic I worked with told me that he had seen what it did: ran down the side of the filler tube, the pan, and lay in a puddle in the bottom.
ANSWER 5: I can't tell you about Slick 50 additives but, for what it's worth, I am not a believer in the additives. I do however, believe in the virtues of synthetic oil. I use it almost exclusively in all my IC engines. One warning though. If your engine already uses oil, don't switch to synthetics. Also, you can't break an engine in with synthetic oil. My Ford (sorry, I got a good deal) F 150 is living proof after 120,000 and it still does not use any oil to speak of.
ANSWER 6: Slick 50. No way it's going to increase your power. So folks swear by it, others say it's a waste of money. I've put it my Geo Metro and after 120,000 miles it's still running fine. Due to Slick 50? Dunno.
Want more horsepower? JC Whitney has a Solex replacement carb. Although I hesitate to say it will give you more HP, it can make for smoother running and starting. You can throw on a turbocharger (from a Ford 2.3L) but you must modify your exhaust manifold. The L-head problem is that it's a poor breather. Of course you could always throw in a V-6.
ANSWER 7: My opinion is that I would not use these additives if I do not know the history of the engine. Oil 50 or so years ago was poor and had little if any detergents in it. Over the years the grades of oil have improved greatly. What I am trying to say I would not use these because of their detergents, years ago there may had been deposits of dirt left in there and if you use modern oil with the best cleaning power you could break some of the deposits loose and could block up oil passages thus leading to premature engine failure by under lubrication. This is especially true about synthetic oils. If you know the history of the engine and it has been rebuilt then by all means use these additives if you feel so incline.
ANSWER 8: Save your money and time and stick to the important stuff like regular oil & filter changes, chassis lube, coolant and brake fluid flush, keeping trans, xfer, and knuckle lube topped off. And you should oil the wick on the distributor and keep some oil in the bottom of the air cleaner. If you really want your flathead to last forever you can drop the oil pan every year and wipe out the mud with a rag.
Plenty of work to do to keep a 2a in top shape without having to run voodoo chemicals through it.
ANSWER 9: I've used Tufoil in my old cars for years. It really seems to make things smoother and quieter. Added with each ol change. avail at auto parts store or call Fluoramics 800-922-0075
ANSWER 10: I'm not sure about Slick 50, but if you want the same thing much cheaper (ten bucks) use the Fram Double Duty that has the teflon in it. As for oil, when I lived up by the artic circle I left a bottle of Penzoil 10-30 and a bottle of Mobil 1, 5-50 out overnight. In the morning with temperature at around 50 below, the Penzoil was a solid block, but the Mobil 1 poured with no problem. Those of us that ran synthetics in our ATV's were the only ones running when the weather really got cold. My 85 Nissan with 114K miles burns no oil ever. I started using Mobil 1 in it after about 12K miles. I run nothing but Mobile 1 in my six autos ranging from 1947 to 1997, the four banger in my rice rocket to the fuel injected 460 in my motor home. It stays "thicker" when it's hot and "thinner" when it's cold. Up here they even sell Mobil 1, 0 weight.
ENGINE - L HEAD GOES TO AN F HEAD
ANSWER: The original oil filter will starve the main bearing and first rod bearing at idle will the oil pressure drops low. I have designed a system that uses a spin on filter and a flow control valve to regulate the flow at idle. [Answer in progress 01-Feb-99]
ANSWER 1: It was a two piece handle and shaft with adapter on the crankshaft end... Do you have the special nut on the end of your crankshaft ? You know what it looks like.... Now for the other item I know .. Continental made the engines for the MB, AND Allis Chalmers tractors back in those days... I am told that an Old Tractor graveyard that has Allis Chalmers tractors will probably have the crank and Nut that goes on the crank shaft of the engine.... check it out.
QUESTION: My motor stalled after running rough. The oil pressure was high and when I checked the dipstick, it was full of crud. What could this mean?
My suggestions: After it sits for a while (measured in hours) the oil and water emulsion should separate. When you drain the oil, you should get both water and oil out. Pulling the head is relatively easy on an old Jeep (as opposed to the modern engines I sometimes find myself struggling with). A new head gasket is about $15 - $20 (as opposed to the complete gasket set I am awaiting from NAPA for an Isuzu Trooper 4 cyl Diesel for $185!).
This will be OK as long as the head studs don't break off. I remember trying to take the flat head off of my L-134. I broke 4 of the studs.
Soak the nuts good and brush off any dirt and grime from the threads. If you do break some, use a stud puller after you gert the head off. I was able to remove 3 of my broken studs without drilling. If you are going to wait for any length of time to pull the head, remove the spark plugs and poor a sizable amount of oil down each cylinder. This is much harder to do on a flat head because the spark plug does not sit directly over the cylender. Cover the top of the engine with an old towel, leave the plugs out and crank the engine over a few times by hand. This will make for an oily rag but it should help keep any water from rusting up the cylinders.
My first attempt would be to confirm that it is just water in the oil, not any metal flakes; then pull the head to see if that is the source of the water (pray that it is, 'cause the other possibility is a cracked block); then put on a new headgasket and replace the head; fill it with cheap oil and start it up. This whole fix shouldn't take more than two or three hours. It will either run OK (in which case you are back on the road), or other problems will become evident.
Don't run the engine more than a few minutes with the cheap oil. Not that running on cheap oil is a problem bu,t you need to change it out to remove the water and "mud" from the system. I have seen it take 2 oil changes to get that junk out of an engine. Even them you will traces of the "mud" around the dip stick for a few weeks.
If you are in the mood to know more, pull the oil pan an check the rod and crank bearings by dropping one cap at a time. They would be the most likely place to find damage due to oil starvation. If they look damaged, you can change the bearings from underneath without pulling engine. You could still be back on the road with a day two of work and less than $100.
ENGINE - L-134 SOLD FOR OTHER USES
QUESTION: I am rebuilding an L-134. Should I go with cast or forged pistons? Prices?
ANSWER: The cast pistons will work fine as long as you keep it timed correctly and don't try to hot rod it. I've never seen a cast piston break under ordinary driving conditions.
There is really no need to run the more expensive forged pistons in a stock motor, and maybe some reasons not to. The forged pistons are stronger and can put up with a little more detonation and are great for a high horsepower rebuild. As for a stock engine, the installation of forged pistons requires the holes to be bored out a little larger than they would be for cast pistons (forged pistons expand more) this causes more piston slap on cold startups and requires a little more care on your part to warm engine up completely before hot rodding it. Both styles will work well, just consider how you will be using your engine and keep costs in mind.
Call Carl Walck's Four Wheel Drive. 610-852-3110. Great prices and shipping time. My price list from him has .020 F-134 pistons at $26.31. Ring set is $29.46.
ENGINE - BROKEN STUD
QUESTION: How can I remove a broken stud [in the engine]?
ANSWER: I broke off an exhaust manifold stud leaving a piece in the block. It was the rear stud, about 1" from the firewall. I drilled a hole in it and used a screw extractor. BAD RESULTS! It broke also, leaving tool steel in the hole. About $75 worth of carbide drill bits later, I inserted a helicoil and a new stud.
I would recommend just drilling the stud out and inserting the helicoil, skipping the screw extractor and carbide bits. I hope your experience is more pleasant (and cheaper).
The thing that I hope everyone out there learned from this is that screw extractors don't.
If you are lucky enough to be the one that broke off the stud, then you should have some idea about how much torque was required to do it. If you were really leaning on it, or it was actually getting TIGHTER as you unscrewed, keep that in mind as you reach for the screw extractor. Remember the extractor will have to apply MORE torque than you did when you broke it. That is rarely possible.
If it broke because you bent it, or because you were trying to straighten it, that's different, and an E-Z out has a chance. I, too spent $75.00 in carbide removing a screw extractor. Once the extractor is out, the stud removal goes pretty easy. (You know the drill...).
0. Grind the broken stud flat and square if possible.
Use lots of cutting fluid, or motor oil while drilling. Go slow, and stay square.
Another (more time consuming) option is to drill the stud with a small enough bit that you don't hit the block or threads. Take a die grinder with a skinny side cutting bit, and carefully grind away the stud from the inside, when you get to the threads, peel it out with a sharp pointed tool (I used the little pointy tools that comes with those small screwdriver sets). Somebody on the list suggested this a while ago and I had a chance to try it out - it worked very well, barely knicked the threads and it took about 2 hours.
Left hand drill bits are worth the investment in this case. You use them in reverse and a lot of the time they will catch and back the broken bolt/stud out for you. Soak the broken stud a couple a days w/ PB Blaster or some other penetrant, then start with the smallest left hand drill. Keep increasing in size until the bolt grabs and screws out or until you'v e almost exposed the threads. Then you have a choice, either gently try an E-Z out or go ahead and overdrill and put in a heli coil. My own experience has been that 60 to 75 % of the time the left hand drill bits grab and back the bolt out.
A couple of years ago I found a local guy that had a "disintegrater" tool. For $50.00 (less than we can spend on broken tools) he removed the debris and supplied a new stud.
Here are a couple of tips I've learned about broken studs that might help:
1) When using easy-outs, grind a groove around the shank just below where the wrench grabs it. The depth of the groove is trial and error. You are making a safety valve, so to speak, so the easy-out will break there first, leaving some material to grip to pull it out.
2) Use a two-handed tap wrench if there is room. This keeps you from applying any side load, which is often what breaks the easy-out. I realize this might not always be possible, like up next to the firewall. In that situation, I've used various scraps of wood, etc. to rest the easy-out against, to prevent side-load.
Years ago, I remember reading of a certain type of acid that only attacked a certain component in the steel in easy-outs and taps. It supposedly left the surrounding metal alone.
[When removing my stuck stud] I opted for some reverse cut bits by Helicoil, sort of a drill bit and EZout combination. Sixty bucks for 4 of the bits. The EZout part didn't work too well, but the bit cut the broken stud like it was butter. I wound up drilling out the stud and retapping the hole, worked like a charm.
I took the head off my 1947 L Head, and broke 5 bolts in the process. Not sure what to do now, (wanted to get it going again is used for daily transportation to work). I started digging through my pile of small block Chevy parts, and found that the outside 4 Head bolts on a small block are an exact match for the L Head bolts (minus the nut on top that rusts on). So after cleaning out the threads in the block and applying a little Teflon sealer to the threads the head was back on and she was running again. Didn't have enough bolts to replace all the head bolts but will at a later time. I feel these are a superior bolt. Have taken heads off dozens of Chevys never broke one bolt.
Here's something that worked pretty well for me for taking out a broken EZ-Out. I put some carbide dental drilling tips I bought at a garage sale in my Dremel tool. Used lots of WD-40 and a few tips but they cut very precisely. The best way to get the EZ-Out out is to cut away at the soft metal of the original stud.
ENGINE - L-HEAD STUD BREAKAGE
QUESTION: Why do L-Head studs break so easily?
ANSWER: Here are some reasons I believe that the L-head bolts break:
1. Corrosion- Far less was known about metallurgy in 1947. The quality of the steel in a modern bolt is far superior. Modern machine bolts are less susceptible to corrosion.
2. Stress- With V-8 the only time a head bolt is retorqued is when the valve cover is removed and usually not even then. With the L-head, the bolts are on top of the head and fully exposed. I know my dad used to make a ritual of retightening the bolts on the top of the engine every spring (Just in case one came loose). And if you blew a head gasket the first thing to try was retightening the bolts.
Do to stretch/stress, it is a good idea to change the bolts at least every other time you replace the head gasket. Since this usually isn't practical it usually isn't done. If the head bolts are grade 5 and you replace them with grade 8 I believe there are some things to consider. Unfortunately my knowledge of shear strength and such is very limited so I'm hoping someone else will help with that. I do believe that a grade 8 bolt is more likely to distort the block threads when torqued than a grade 5.
If the original bolts where grade 8 then I see no reason to not use upgraded bolts.
ENGINE - BUICK V6 APPLICATION
QUESTION: I need to replace the manifold gasket, the exhaust to manifold donut and the carb to manifold gasket. I remember my grandfather soaking a gasket in hot water for a couple hours and then letting it dry for a few days and reusing it. Anyone ever try this?
QUESTION: Does anyone know the original ring color of CJ2A gauges? Were they chromed or painted?
ANSWER: Gloss Black.
Todd Paisley - CJML
SUSPENSION - ENLARGED SPRING PIVOT POINTS
QUESTION: My jp has enlarged spring pivot points. What should I do?
ANSWER 1: My experience is as a machinist, not a welder. With that in mind, two ways. One, get the centerline measurements off of a good bracket, and lay out and center-punch your pilot for the re-drill. Or two, I'm sure a welder has a trick or two up his sleeve, like using a rod of non-ferrous material to clamp in place and weld around.
The location is not critical: if you get it within an eighth of an inch, I would think it would be fine. More important would be that it is square to the frame. (If you have a drill press, drill yourself a drill jig - a block drilled through straight,so you can clamp it to the bracket and drill straight.)
ANSWER 2: Get out your oxy. Cut off the shackle brackets. Finish the job with a good grinder. Buy new shackle brackets. Re-weld them back on. Do it with an arc welder.
SUSPENSION - WRANGLER SPRINGS ON A 2A
STEERING - TIE ROD SETUP
QUESTION: Any advise on using a tierod steering rod setup on a 46 cj? I have it in my mind to use a knuckle to knuckle rod and separate steering rod, either with the stock steering or a Saginaw conversion. The only major problem seems to be that the tie rod and steering rod are going to have to share a common bolt hole on the knuckle. My stock tie rods were all trashed so I have to replace it anyway. Anybody done this?
ANSWER: You need a tie rod that goes from knuckle to knuckle. The drag link will connect from the steering box (or bell crank) to the right side knuckle. The most common way is to use a ride side tie rod end that has a hole in it, so it actually connects to the tie rod end not the knuckle. AA sells this tie rod end but it is actually a factory piece, it was used on the 60's Commandos. The better way, at least I think so, is to use a ride side knuckle from a dana 25/27 from a truck or wagon. These have two holes in the knuckle, one for the tie rod and one for the drag link. Even the new style wagons up until '71 I think used the d27 front axle with this knuckle, not to hard to find in a scrap yard. This is the way all of the CJ's from '72 on up were set up with the dana 30.
With the size tires you're planning, go with Saginaw steering. Also I'd go to 8" wheels to keep the tires from rubbing the frame up front when you turn and the inner wheelhouse in the back when twisted up. With 7" wheels I think you'd need custom offset.
STEERING - KNUCKLES
STEERING - BELL CRANK PIN MOUNTING BRACKET
QUESTION: Does any one have some sage advice on repair to the bell crank pin mounting bracket? Pin is loose due to rounding over of bracket hole by previous replacement of pin with CJ3A pin (smaller diameter, threaded and mounted with nut under radiator. I replaced this years ago with the correct pin, but it has always been loose resulting in a lot of free play at the steering wheel which is now so excessive the car will no longer pass state inspection.
QUESTION: How can I learn the various number and letter codes on my tires and also find what I need and where to get them?
ANSWER: Here is a great tire question and answer web source...
TIRES/RIMS - SOURCES
A place in Dayton, OH - Tires Unlimited - (937) 276-2115 has new NDT tires for $63.95
Hiawatha Tire [used military]
Rims, new, for this same tire.
TRANSMISSION/TRANSFER CASE - T-90 TRANSMISSION REBUILD
QUESTION: I decided to tear the tranny and xfer apart since I had it on the bench. I also found the intermediate shaft severely spalded on one side and the bearings slightly pitted. I will replace these but now I need to know if there is something I should be looking for in the tranny as I take it apart next. Any tricks on disassembly or reassembly? The cone and roller bearings look ok, but should I replace them anyway?
ANSWER: You should have the shop manual that covers the T-90. I've read mine through about 15 times now getting ready to do the job. The first couple of times I read through it all seemed Greek. I thought "Surly someone has put together a better manual for this thing by now." I kept going through it and memorizing the illustrated parts breakdown (IPB) until I now fully understand each and every step. I have come to the conclusion that it is fairly complete and will work well if followed in the correct sequence. I planned to disassemble mine today but it seems my wife had other plans, I guess there's always tomorrow. If you don't have a manual it would be a great help to buy one.
To the rest of you already been there and done that crowd, one of the steps says to inspect the bushings and replace as necessary. I can't find any bushings in the IPB nor anyplace a bushing should go except maybe for where the countershaft and reverse gear shaft are driven in. If there were bushings there, they shouldn't be worn because the shaft doesn't rotate or move. Any added info here would be appreciated.
See this website for assistance...
Also, I had the same question regarding the bearing in the xfer case output shaft. The one I just received from Walcks doesn't fit. Looks like I'll have to ream it a bit. I also noticed the t90 diagram in my CJ manual doesn't show this bearing, just my truck manual. Could this be because the Willys trucks, with their larger chassis and more powerful engines, are simply a hardier beast than the diminutive cj's? Just a thought.
"A. Drain the lubricant and clean the outside of the case with cleaning solvent." Good idea to get the case as clean as possible to keep as much dirt and grime out as you can.
"B. Remove the shift housing and gasket from the top of the transmission." The instructions on the shift housing assembly stop here. As I figure out how to disassemble it, I will post to let you know.
"C. If the transfer case is attached, separate it from the transmission as outlined in Par. K-3." I didn't have to do this because mine had the model 20 transfer case that comes right off.
"D. Remove the three screws and washers attaching the front main drive gear bearing retainer to the transmission. Remove the retainer and gasket." Straight forward with no difficulty. However these screws were twelve point high torque bolts on mine. If all I had were 6 point sockets I would have had difficulty.
"E. Remove the two socket-head screws from the front end of the transmission case. These screws support the oil collector inside the case." These were also 12 point and are counter sunk. The guy that was in here last completely buried them with RTV.
"F. Tap lightly on the front end of the countershaft to loosen the lockplate. Remove the lock plate and from the slots cut into the rear ends of the countershaft and reverse idler shaft." No go sports fans. It was easy to tap the countershaft back enough for it to release the lock plate but the reverse idle shaft was a nightmare to get tapped back. I was finally able to get a small brass hammer down inside the case and about 35 blows later (very short throw) I was able to move the reverse idler back enough the release the plate.
"G. Using special tool No. W-166 or a brass drift, drive the countershaft toward the rear of the case and remove it. The countershaft gear set will drop to the bottom of the transmission case. If the special tool is used, the needle bearings will remain in the countershaft gear hub and the gears and bearings may later be removed as an assembly." As was expected this is all true. I drove out the counter shaft (not much force needed) and the countershaft gear set and bearings fell to the bottom.
"H. Remove the mainshaft rear bearing adapter." There was no way this was going to happen without a gear puller. The bearing adapter was baked on tight as could be. I opted to leave it in place and just attempt to pull the mainshaft out with the bearing adapter in place.
"I. Remove the mainshaft from the case. The mainshaft assembly with the gears still in place may be removed through the rear bearing adapter opening" I was able to accomplish this with the rear bearing adapter still mounted on the mainshaft. When you remove the mainshaft the pilot roller bearings will fall out and into the bottom of the case. Collect them up so they will not be lost. I later removed the rear bearing and bearing adapter by standing the mainshaft up on end and sliding the first/reverse gear up and down on the shaft. The tapping against the bearing drove it down and off of the shaft. The bearing and adapter must later be separated by removing the retaining ring. This could have been done before, allowing the adapter alone to be removed but you would still be stuck with the bearing on the shaft.
"J. Drive the main gear into the case enough top remove the . Remove the oil collector." Stop! Do not drive the main gear into the case until you remove the outside bearing snap ring. If you do you will be driving the snap ring into the front surface of the case. After you remove the snap ring (This is the large one of the outside not the small one on the inside of the bearing) drive the gear into the case just enough to move the oil collector out of the way. My oil collector could not be removed with main drive gear installed.
"K. Remove the main drive gear." Once the oil collector is moved out of the way you can slide the gear out through the front. You can not remove it from the rear. Now I was able to remove the oil collector.
"L. Remove the counter shaft gear set and the three thrust washers. Remove the needle bearings, and spacer from the assembly." Mine was missing the last thrust washer. There should be a total of 88 needle bearings, one spacer, six bearing group separator washers and three thrust washers.
"M. Remove the reverse idler shaft and gear by driving the shaft into the case using a brass drift." This was where it got ugly. Either my tranny is different or they (The books authors) made a huge mistake here. I was able to drive the reverse idler shaft about halfway forward through the reverse idler gear before it froze up solid. It took me about two hours with that little brass hammer to pound this shaft back out the other way. Turns out my idler shaft is larger of the rear end than it is on the front side. As it turns out my reverse idler gear's bushing is buggered up pretty bad. Not because of the pounding (although I'm sure that didn't help) but because of some small metal parts that collected inside. For those of you that don't believe in putting a magnet on the bottom I think you should think it through again. I don't know if I can change just the bushing or if I will have to change the whole gear.
When I worked on my T-90, I got a small parts kit that included six rings that bracket the rollers. My tranny originally had only four instead of six. There were no rings against the spacer. The service manual (written in '56) said older transmissions had four and that they should be updated to 6 when they are serviced. Deciding to use all six, I had to get a new, every so slightly shorter, spacer. Luckily my local Jeep shop had it, so it didn't introduce more than a couple hour delay in my rebuild.
I didn't have to "drive it out". It all came out without any unusual effort. Sorry to hear yours is stuck in the cluster.
TRANSMISSION/TRANSFER CASE - TIGHT FIT ROLLER BEARING
QUESTION: How can I get my roller bearing to fit? It's too tight?
ANSWER: The center of my roller bearings fit very tight on the shaft. So tight in fact that they would normally have to be pressed on. I used an old USAF bearing installation trick (I'm not claiming we invented it, just used it). I put the main shaft in the freezer (lubed first) and heated the bearing in the hot sun (I finally found a use for San Antonio heat). After about an hour I installed the hot bearing on the cold shaft. The first time I did it, I didn't heat the bearing. About half way down it matched the cold of the shaft and contracted around the shaft. Stuck solidly in place. Even heated you must put the bearing all the way on the first try or it will stick in place. Do not heat the bearings with a torch as this can burn the grease and leave carbon deposits in the bearings. I guess those of you living in the Arctic Wastelands could heat the bearing in Momma's oven at around 130 degrees. Just don't let her catch you.
TRANSMISSION/TRANSFER CASE - YOKE
QUESTION: Does anybody know if anybody manufactures a tool to hold the yoke on the out put of a transfer case. Or is it something you have to fabricate for yourself? If any body can give me a manufacture name I would appreciate it.
ANSWER: If you mean a tool to hold the yoke in place while loosen and tighten the nut, I used a 16" pipe wrench. Then I got smart and hauled the whole thing over to someone with an air ratchet and zip they were off without even trying to hold it in place. If you are after a correct torque specification this would not be practical for installation. The pipe wrench worked fine for that. If you don't want little nick marks on it, slide two thin stips of tin in between the jaws and the yoke.
You could also make a holder from a thick strip of bar steel or even angle iron. You could drill two holes in it to match those on the yoke and bolt it on. I hope this helps.
TRANSMISSION/TRANSFER CASE - REBUILDING THE SPICER 18
TRANSMISSION/TRANSFER CASE - MODEL 20 VS 18 T-CASE
QUESTION: How can you tell the difference between a model 18 and a model 20 transfer case?
ANSWER: The way you can tell is that the rear driveshaft exits the t-case in the normal way (directly behind the transmission)instead of the model 18 way where the front and rear driveshafts are lined up.
I remember reading somewhere that the big hole model 18 and model 20 used the same case.
TRANSMISSION/TRANSFER CASE - OUTPUT BEARING RETAINER
QUESTION: Are all output bearing retainers alike?
ANSWER: They differ. Here is an explanation:
-There are some differences in rear output bearing retainers. In looking things over I thought I had messsed up something and covered over the hole in the casting for the oil feed. Taking it apart I found that the one I was using has a much smaller hole that the shims or the other retainer I have. I don't think it's an issue as this is at the bottom of the xfer so there will be plenty of oil in this area, just something to file away. By the way, the one with the small hole came from an xfer w/out an e-brake and the one with the larger hole came with an e-brake.
-I didn't use the gasket for the rear bearing retainer. With all of the shims I doubt that it would make much of a difference. I relied rather on the use of head gasket sealer between all of the shims, we'll see -- I may be pulling out the RTV if this area starts to leak. I also found that getting the shaft endplay set right was quite a chore, it's best left until you have time and patience. This was another reason I didn't want to use the gasket. I would have ended up compressing it multiple times before I got the number of shims right.
-I didn't use the wooden dowl technique for inserting the intermediate shaft. I didn't need it which was just as well as I don't like the idea of wood bits in my bearings. By lining the gear with bearing grease all the bearings stayed in place until I got to the last bearing which I had to gently snap into place holding the rest in position just like a keystone. I had one bearing left over, and had no problems with bearings falling out while I moved the gear around counting bearings. It turned out Walck sent me one too many. I had the case on the bench, on it's side and was able to move the gear into position, place the thrust washers, and slide the the shaft down through the hole.
-I didn't replace the lockout detent ball between the shift rails. In case you don't know this will now allow 2 wheel drive, low range. This puts all the torque to the rear so care needs to be taken not to be too heavy on the throttle with this option. I'll be curious if I ever actually find it useful.
-I had reported earlier that I messed up the replacement shift rail oil seals. I had hyper extended them when inserting the rails and the springs on the backside popped off. I ordered some more from Walck and he sent a different variety that look nice. They have a metal jacket on the backside as well and a material that looks more neoprene like than rubber. I also found that using a file to campfer the edges of the notches in the shift rails helps them to move passed the seals without catching.
-My original xfer had square drive bolts and safety wire holding the shift forks to the rails. The replacement had allen socket set screws. I used the square drives with LocTite and some safety wire from a co-worker who races cars (the 'real' safety wire was much easier to use than any bailing wire I would have boughten...it would be worth looking for a race shop to get some).
-I did not replace the bushing inside the front end of the rear ouput shaft as it only had .003" of play (I was told that .002" was the spec). My original xfer had lot's of slop... enough that measuring it would have only been academic.
-I still haven't closed the issue with the speedometer gear. All my cases have 6 tooth drive gears. There exist a 4 tooth gear, apparently. Swapping these requires removeal of the the rear bearing retainer. I hope to be able to get the ratio I need with the options for the driven gear, which can be changed without opening up the case, or using an external adapter.
-I was told that the output shaft seals I got were the good ones because they have some red stuff on the outside that creates a seal against the case and therefore I don't need the felt seals that I was also sent. Time will tell though I'll probably use the felt seals as well.
TRANSMISSION/TRANSFER CASE - TRANSMISSION OVERVIEW
The front main bearing is subject to a little more wear than the rear main bearing as it is being subjected to more heat from being up next to the engine and is turning at a faster rate than the rear main bearing when the transmission is being operated in a less than a 1 to 1 ratio. However, its design is such that it should not fail under normal usage if the rest of the transmission is all right. A bad input bearing or shaft and a bad pilot bearing are just some of the things that may cause a front main bearing to fail. Poor lubrication would be the main reason. A loose fit at the input/output shaft will also cause the transmission to pop out of gear. When they get that bad, alot of stuff probably needs replacing.
The front main bearing is subject to a little more wear than the rear main bearing as it is being subjected to more heat from being up next to the engine and is turning at a faster rate than the rear main bearing when the transmission is being operated in a less than a 1 to 1 ratio. However, its design is such that it should not fail under normal usage if the rest of the transmission is all right. A bad input bearing or shaft and a bad pilot bearing are just some of the things that may cause a front main bearing to fail. Poor lubrication would be the main reason. A loose fit at the input/output shaft will also cause the transmission to pop out of gear. When they get that bad, alot of stuff probably needs replacing.
QUESTION: I'm back to work on the 47 and have the transmission and transfer case on the bench. First question: Here are all the numbers, what do they mean and is this original? On the tranny left side T90A1 2; Small plate on left side 7 15 47; Top of tranny by shifter cover 19 and H2071. Plate on top of the xfer case, ser. no j125475,low gear ______, model 18.
Searchable parts for sale...
ANYTHING GOES - GOOD READING
QUESTION: Is there one written source (hopefully, a book) on early jeep history, which you could recommend?
ANSWER: Depends on what you mean by early history. If you want to know about its development, the best book by far is "Jeep: Its Development and Procurement Under Quartermaster Corps 1940-42" by Herbert Rifkind. This is chockful of accurate information. If you want a tainted history slanted toward Willys, then "Hail to the Jeep" by A.W. Wells. Not always accurate and downplayed Bantam and Ford's contributions. "Hail to the Jeep" was written in 1946 and probably is the main basis where most of today's books draw on for their interpretation of history. If you want early civilian history, you will have to wait awhile. Fred is writing one on the civilian prototypes and the CJ-2A. Over the last year I have been reviewing chapters for him for his book and it will bring out some of the lost tidbits that have been uncovered recently. Quite a few little surprises that people will find interesting. Stay tuned for this book. Todd Paisley - CJML
Check this history document out...
ANYTHING GOES - SECURITY
Here's my suggestion on vehicle security, get a sprint car type steering wheel disconnect from summit racing, they have the pin or pinnless type which makes it easy to take your steering wheel with you, this will only work if you are willing to give up your stock steering wheel. Cost is under $40 (+$30 for a modern greyhound steering wheel) . Lets see somebody try to steer a cj with a vice grips :)
Just unbolt the nut that holds the steering wheel in place and remove it when you are not in the vehicle. When my 3B is operational, I just walk around with my steering wheel. You get funny looks but anyone who owns a classic Jeep knows what you are doing.
I once had my daughters riding with me in my 48 CJ2A. We went to turn a curve and the wheel turned but the steering didn't because the nut had backed off just a fraction. We went off the road and took out a big wooden sign. Nobody was injured but it proved to me the importance of having that nut good and tight.
I used to be a repossessor in Chicago area and one of the best one's I saw was a man that had wired his ignition into a seat belt buzzer. That way the car would not start without having the seat belt on. There's not a thief in the world that will put a seat belt on when stealing a car, plus it also then makes sure that you don't forget.
Links to everything for Jeeps
Beachwood Canvas Works
Flat Fenders Forever 1-207-465-7526
Where to find manuals and books:
BOOKS - CHILTONS
QUESTION: What do you think of the Chilton manuals?
ANSWER: I have found that Chilton's usually tells you what you already know. The larger size Chiltons manual (8.5 x 11) that I bought for my 63 CJ5 is a little more more useful than the smaller versions but it does span a broad range of years and can be limited in its' usefullness for your model. It does have some good pictures. In my experiences with Chilton's I have found a lot of misprints and editing errors. You might try to find one that is open so you can browse through before you buy. I think Haynes is a little better. Like anything, you get what you pay for.
I use a Chilton's manual in my garage, but only as a supplement to the Jeep shop manual.
If you have a question that you would like answered and kept in this FAQ,